GERMAN resistance to Napoleon, fostered by exiles such as Clausewitz and Stein inSt. Petersburg as well as by local patriots, burst into renewed life at the retreat from Moscow and gathered strength throughout the year or so of struggle which followed, called in German the Freiheitskriege, wars of liberation from French occupation. A multifarious underground literature sprang up, aimed at the ending of collaboration with Napoleon by rulers and their administrations and by the large German contingent in the Grande armee. Passionately nationalistic in a pan-German sense, it took the form mainly of small pamphlets, the most successful texts being reprinted many times and in many places, in spite of the close attention of censors and the informants of the French secret police, but usually without evidence of origin or with false imprints.
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